Gynecomastia (guy-nuh-koh-MAS-tee-uh) is an increase in the amount of breast gland tissue in boys or men, caused by an imbalance of the hormones estrogen and testosterone. Gynecomastia can affect one or both breasts, sometimes unevenly.

Newborns, boys going through puberty and older men may develop gynecomastia as a result of normal changes in hormone levels, though other causes also exist.

Generally, gynecomastia isn’t a serious problem, but it can be tough to cope with the condition. Men and boys with gynecomastia sometimes have pain in their breasts and may feel embarrassed.

Gynecomastia may go away on its own. If it persists, medication or surgery may help.

In revision breast surgery a variety of techniques may be used to re-design or reshape the breasts. Some ladies have a less-than-ideal aesthetic outcome following cosmetic surgery or may have experienced changes in their results following fluctuations in weight. Occasionally some ladies experience symptoms such as tightness or pain following breast surgery. For those with breast reconstruction the results may have changed over time, particularly with implant reconstruction.

Correction of either cosmetic breast surgery or post-reconstruction problems requires experience, judgment and skill of the surgeon. As a female Plastic Surgeon I intimately understand how your feelings about your breasts can influence your self-image and femininity. My aim is to help you feel better and look better by giving you the results you are seeking. As a surgeon who performs complicated breast reconstruction surgery every week my skill and expertise is directly transferable to all types of breast revision, whether reconstructive or cosmetic.

Revision breast surgery may include a range of procedures including revision of breast implants, reshaping breasts that have previously been lifted or reduced, or correction of unsightly scars.

The results of breast reconstruction can change over time particularly with implant reconstruction and revision can involve a variety of techniques from fat grafting to taking down the reconstruction and starting again with a different type of reconstruction. Breast revision surgery is always more difficult that primary surgery as we are working in an area that already has scars and tissue removed or altered. While there are no guarantees regarding the final outcome, my goal is to create the most aesthetic outcome from the tissue I have with the best possible symmetry and a natural result that is proportional to the rest of the body.

Breast reduction surgery, also known as reduction mammaplasty, is a procedure used to remove excess fat, tissue and skin from the breasts. If you have large breasts, you might choose to have breast reduction surgery to ease discomfort or to achieve a breast size proportionate to your body.

Breast reduction surgery might also help improve your self-image and your ability to participate in physical activities. If you’re considering breast reduction surgery, consult a board-certified plastic surgeon. It’s important to understand what breast reduction surgery entails — including possible risks and complications — as well as set realistic expectations.

A breast lift — also known as mastopexy — is a surgical procedure performed by a plastic surgeon to change the shape of your breasts. During a breast lift, excess skin is removed and breast tissue is reshaped to raise the breasts.

You might choose to have a breast lift if your breasts sag or your nipples point downward. A breast lift might also boost your self-image and self-confidence.

A breast lift won’t significantly change the size of your breasts. However, a breast lift can be done in combination with breast augmentation or breast reduction.

Breast augmentation — also known as augmentation mammoplasty — is surgery to increase breast size. It involves placing breast implants under breast tissue or chest muscles.

For some women, breast augmentation is a way to feel more confident. For others, it’s part of rebuilding the breast for various conditions.

If you’re considering breast augmentation, talk to a plastic surgeon. Make sure you understand what surgery involves, including possible risks, complications and follow-up care.